### What is Time: is it Dynamic?

*It is remarkable that the most real feeling in perception of time “the present”, cannot be measured in any units of time. Present is*

duration-less, it is an infinitesimal. On the timeline both the past and the future which are seen as durations in time encroach on the

present.

duration-less, it is an infinitesimal. On the timeline both the past and the future which are seen as durations in time encroach on the

present.

*T*

*ime is possibly an emergent concept**that arises secondary to the presence of motion and forces. It is proposed here that the motion and forces are due to expansion of the universe. Slower expansion of space around large masses like earth and sun could be considered as*

the cause of slower time linking time to the expansion of space. Gravity can be explained on basis of tendency of matter composed of billions of particles orbiting at tremendous velocities to move from faster to slower time when placed in a time differential. This explains why gravity is

always attractive. This new approach towards understanding time eliminates the infinite gravity or singularity of black holes. It also shows us that not only gravity of large masses but motion of objects also can curve space which leads to the beautiful mechanism of length contraction. It leads to a deeper understanding of why time slows with motion and in gravity. It also provides a clear explanation of why there cannot be a twin paradox.

the cause of slower time linking time to the expansion of space. Gravity can be explained on basis of tendency of matter composed of billions of particles orbiting at tremendous velocities to move from faster to slower time when placed in a time differential. This explains why gravity is

always attractive. This new approach towards understanding time eliminates the infinite gravity or singularity of black holes. It also shows us that not only gravity of large masses but motion of objects also can curve space which leads to the beautiful mechanism of length contraction. It leads to a deeper understanding of why time slows with motion and in gravity. It also provides a clear explanation of why there cannot be a twin paradox.

Time is related to the expansion of space. Slower time is associated with slower expansion

and negative curvature in space in a higher dimension which was first described by Einstein. This extra dimension is not a time dimension in which we can travel. Time is just the presence of motion and forces and is caused by the expansion of space. When we discuss time we will come across terms like curvature in space in a higher dimension, expansion of space, slowing of time in gravity and slowing of time in motion. It is important to understand the connection of each one of these terms. Expansion of space is the prime mover behind all the action, it imparts time as the presence of motion and forces to matter in an area of space. Also slower expansion of space produces negative curvature in space. Although time is slower in negatively curved space it is the slower expansion which is causing slower time and not the negative curvature. Slower expansion is in turn due to presence of a mass. The gravitons radiate from a mass under the influence of expanding space. Gravitons are thought to be double spin particles that interact with space to slow the expansion. All these phenomenon expansion of space, curvature in space gravity and time are interconnected. Prime mover however is the expansion of the space and the universe.

*Time dilation of particles moving in circular particle accelerators can be precisely calculated by using only the velocities and completely ignoring the acceleration.*

This also is clear in the so called twin paradox. The time dilation of the traveling twin cannot be explained by acceleration. The acceleration can be made to be instantaneous then the only difference between the twins is the velocity.

This also is clear in the so called twin paradox. The time dilation of the traveling twin cannot be explained by acceleration. The acceleration can be made to be instantaneous then the only difference between the twins is the velocity.

*By design the acceleration deceleration of both the twins is exactly the same and also very brief. The twins only differ in the time spent in*

traveling at uniform velocity. From here we can see that time dilation is only related to motion through space including the velocity present during acceleration. Also we know clearly from Lorentz’s and Einstein’s equations for time dilation that only velocity is involved and that time

dilation is not caused by acceleration.

The same logic should be applied to acceleration in gravity. It should be clear from above that acceleration in gravity or in motion does not

produce time dilation. Around large masses differential expansion of space creates time differential which then produces gravitation

acceleration.

From our hypothesis and from observation we can see that all motion is due to expansion of space. Also if total motion imparted by expanding space is a constant then we expect to see slowing of time in an object if its external motion is increased. Similarly if a mass composed of billions of atoms moving at tremendous velocities is placed in a time a differential (gravity) it is natural to expect that it will move towards slower time and the internal motion will get converted to an external linear motion.

Twin paradox as well as the problem of acceleration seen in a rotating object is present only if you deny motion through space. Just as a moving object can be differentiated from a non moving object because of its slower time and so can a rotating mass be differentiated from a

non rotating mass due to presence of acceleration. Objects set into motion produce a curvature in space while objects at rest do not. If Einstein had applied the concept of curved space to motion then there would not be any talk of twin paradox.

traveling at uniform velocity. From here we can see that time dilation is only related to motion through space including the velocity present during acceleration. Also we know clearly from Lorentz’s and Einstein’s equations for time dilation that only velocity is involved and that time

dilation is not caused by acceleration.

The same logic should be applied to acceleration in gravity. It should be clear from above that acceleration in gravity or in motion does not

produce time dilation. Around large masses differential expansion of space creates time differential which then produces gravitation

acceleration.

From our hypothesis and from observation we can see that all motion is due to expansion of space. Also if total motion imparted by expanding space is a constant then we expect to see slowing of time in an object if its external motion is increased. Similarly if a mass composed of billions of atoms moving at tremendous velocities is placed in a time a differential (gravity) it is natural to expect that it will move towards slower time and the internal motion will get converted to an external linear motion.

Twin paradox as well as the problem of acceleration seen in a rotating object is present only if you deny motion through space. Just as a moving object can be differentiated from a non moving object because of its slower time and so can a rotating mass be differentiated from a

non rotating mass due to presence of acceleration. Objects set into motion produce a curvature in space while objects at rest do not. If Einstein had applied the concept of curved space to motion then there would not be any talk of twin paradox.

inspiration from timephysics.com

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